The vast majority of Indian people pay exactly the same taxes as non-Indians. However, sovereign tribal governments are not subject to taxation by the federal or state governments.
Indians pay the same taxes as non-Indians.
The vast majority of individual Indians pay exactly the same taxes as everyone else, including federal and state income taxes, social security taxes, unemployment insurance, real estate and sales taxes, liquor and cigarette taxes, and gas and motor vehicle taxes. The only exceptions are Indians who live and work on a reservation, (some of them get rebates on sales taxes), and Indians who live on trust lands who do not pay real estate taxes.
Indian tribes do not pay taxes to federal or state governments; sovereign governments do not pay taxes to each other.
There is a long established principal in American law that one sovereign government may not tax another. The rationale for this principal is obvious. If one government could tax another it could conceivably tax it out of existence. Indian tribes are sovereign governments so they can not be taxed by any other government. Tribes are in a similar situation to states, which operate lotteries to expend their revenue bases and provide for the needs of their citizens. Indian tribes that operated gaming establishments and other enterprises do so for the same purpose. The federal government would never tax a state government based on it revenues and it should not attempt to tax Indian tribal government on theirs.